All Facts about Indo- China Relationship
One of the latest burning topic now a days is Indo- China Relation here Defence Guru is sharing important blog for it:-
The relationship or we can say the modern relationship between India and China began in 1950, and at that time India was amongst the first countries to end formal ties with Republic of China (Taiwan), and recognized the People’s Republic China (PRC) as the lawful government of Mainland China.It is very important to know that India and China have had friendly relations for more than 2,000 years. The Silk route was not only a route for trade, but also it helped in promotion of Buddhism from India to China.
.What are the Issues of Dispute between India and China
The Commander of the Liberation Army was Mao Zeodang and he was also the Chairman of the Communist Party of China who viewed Tibet as an integral part of the China and was completely determined that he would bring Tibet under its direct control .Tibet is like a buffer zone between China and India. India regarded the Chinese forceful occupation of Tibet as an act of aggression, whereas China considered India’s view as interference in the internal affairs of the People’s Republic of China.India and the PRC signed an eight-year agreement on Tibet in April 1954, that recognised sovereignty of China over Tibet as its autonomous region and set forth the basis of Indo-China relationship in the form of the Panchsheel or the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.But, in the year 1959 India provided asylum to the Tibetan religious leader, Dalai Lama and their thousands of refugees, who stayed in Dharamsala and in Indian North East states to escape from People’s Liberation Army (PLA).It is the primary reason for deterioration of Indo-China relations leading to PRC accusing India of expansionism into Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region, which finally resulted in the 1962 Indo-China war.
What exactly is Border Disputes?
There is big dispute between India and China Border, Mc Mohan Line is the border between India and China but China does not accept the Mc Mohan line as the legal delineation between India and China. According to them this was a demarcation agreed upon between erstwhile British Raj and Tibet.During the year 1959, China claimed 104,000 km² of territory, over which India's maps were showing clear supremacy, and demanded for the amendment of the entire border.China made a proposal to India that it would renounce its claim to most of India's northeast in exchange for India's abandonment of its claim to Aksai Chin.The Indian Government rejected the idea of a settlement based on huge loss of Indian territory as being humiliating and unequal. Now this border dispute resulted in the border war between China and India on Oct 20, 1962 and during this war China pushed Indian forces within 48km in Assam in and they also occupied strategic points in Ladakh. On Nov 21, 1962 China declared a unilateral cease fire and withdrew 20km area behind its Line of Control.
In the year 1967, there were two clashes occurred between India and China forces in Sikkim. The first one was named as the "Nathu La incident", and the other was named as "Chola incident", in that battle exchange of heavy fire took place at the Sikkim outpost.During the whole battle Indian losses were 88 killed and 163 wounded, while Chinese casualties were 300 killed and 450 wounded in Nathu La, and 40 in Chola.In 1980, India’s Prime Minister Indira Gandhi approved a plan for upgrading the deployment of forces around the Line of Actual Control to avoid unilateral redefinitions of the line. India increased funds for infrastructural development in the areas.In the year 1984, squads of Indian soldiers started actively patrolling the Sumdorong Chu Valley in Arunachal Pradesh earlier known as North East Frontier Agency, which is north part of the McMahon Line.But in the winter of 1986, the Chinese deployed their troops on Sumdorong Chu before the Indian team could arrive in the summer.Also the PRC relayed warnings that it would "teach India a lesson" if it did not cease "nibbling" at Chinese territory.By the summer of 1987, however, both sides had backed away from conflict and denied that military clashes had taken place.There were six rounds of talks of the Indian-Chinese Joint Working Group on the Border Issue were held between December 1988 and June 1993.After the Sino-India border agreements signed in 1993 and in 1996 ,the term Line of Actual Control (LAC) gained legal recognition. The 1996 agreement states that no activity shall overstep the Line of Actual Control.
However, both sides have their own interpretation of the delineation of the LAC on the ground, as there is no clear demarcation of the boundaries, thereby leading to errors of perception and understanding of previous agreements.In November 2006, China and India had a verbal spat over claim of the north-east Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. India claimed that China was occupying 38,000 Square Km of its territory in Kashmir, while China claimed the whole of Arunachal Pradesh as its own.
China’s Policy of ‘String of Pearls’
Highly technologically advanced China has highly developed surface and air communication facilities all along the Tibetan Region, also in opposite of Arunachal Pradesh and now is in the process of preparing a dozen more airfields in Tibet.Indian side on the other hand, is struggling with difficult terrain and therefore, builds up, movement and reinforcement of troops will be laborious and time consuming.Assertive stance of China on the border is an indicator that it wants to stake its territorial claims and also dissuade India from building up infrastructure along the border.Also, by slowly biting into pieces of Indian Territory through continuous intrusions, the Chinese are observing how India’s political leadership and its security forces react to such provocation.China is also training for short and instant conflict preceded by a cyber-offensive. An offensive could involve the use of missiles, anti-satellite weapons and other devices,weapons. China’s larger strategy is to isolate India and keep it confined to the back waters of South Asia through its policy of establishing a‘string of pearls’ by increasing its influence over all neighbors of India, like, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Maldives, Bhutan and of course with its all-time ally Pakistan.It is in full scale infrastructure diplomacy by enhancing its connectivity to our buffer states of Bhutan and Nepal, forging better economic ties with Myanmar by assisting in its gas exploration and infrastructure development in Sri Lanka and Pakistan by building ports and supporting them financially.
The offensive stand of China on Doko La (Doklam) and India’s strong warning in return, was the latest addition to the worries that spoil Indo-China relations. It was started when India objected a road construction by the People’s Liberation Army of China in the Doklam plateau which China claims to be a part of its Donglang region. However, India and Bhutan recognize it as Doklam, a Bhutan territory.Later, China accused Indian troops of entering in its territory and India accused the Chinese of destroying its bunkers (People’s Liberation Army bulldozed an old bunker of the Indian army stationed in Doklam).Thereafter China stopped the passage pilgrims heading toward Kailash-Mansarovar through the Nathu La pass, Sikkim. The route is a better alternative to Lipu Lekh route, Uttarakhand and had been opened for pilgrims in 2015. Thereafter, both India and China increased the presence of their troops and since then there has been a war of words especially from the Chinese state media.Although a military standoff was averted, diplomatic negotiations have not yielded many results to cool-off the passions across the border.
Doklam -why so critical or Important?
Doklam (Zhoglam or Droklam or Donglang) is a narrow plateau lying in the tri-junction of India, China and Bhutan.China believes Doklam to be a disputed territory between Bhutan and China.It, therefore, contests the presence of Indian army in the region as a transgression.The disputed region is very close to India’s Siliguri Corridor which connects the seven north eastern states to the Indian mainland.
India’s Support to Bhutan-
Bhutan and India have a very cordial relationship were as Bhutan and China do not have formal relations.Bhutan has a very strategic position considering India’s geography.To foster the relationship, India and Bhutan signed a ‘Friendship Treaty’ in 2007 that commits India to protect Bhutan’s interests and the close coordination between the two militaries.Also, India is worried that if the road is completed, it will give China greater access to India’s strategically vulnerable “chicken’s neck” (Siliguri Corridor) that links the seven north eastern states to the Indian mainland.
Dynamics of Regional Alliances
Now China has started improving its economic and military relationships China is improving economic and military relationship with countries that are presently on the hit list of USA, like Russia, Iran and even Pakistan. This alliance is also being viewed as a counter weight to the improved Indo-US relationship.The very evident shift of US loyalties towards India and the fight against terror in Afghanistan coming to its culmination point, where USA required Pakistan’s administrative support, the dynamics of regional politics has deflected Pakistan towards China.
At the end it can be clearly seen that in the present times where economic interdependence and the shadows of disaster in the form of climate change and terrorism looms large, no nation is a permanent friend or an enemy; these are purely alliances of convenience.Indian government is showing a perceptive foreign policy by engaging every country that ‘matters’ meaningfully and resolving conflicts from a position of strength rather than playing up to any gallery.
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